Scientists and engineers, who have investigated scale formation in various industrial systems have determined that although CaCO3 and MgCO3 form most of the mass in lime type scale, they require silica (SiO2), alumna (Al2O3) and/or calcium sulfate (CaSO4) to act as a cement agent to bind them together.
CIS Tools consist of nine dissimilar precious and semiprecious metals, i.e. copper, zinc, nickel and others that form a special electrochemical catalyst. In addition, the core of the tool is configured to prevent flow restriction while providing a high degree of turbulence and increased physical contact between (1) ions and molecules in water and (2) the core itself. This maximizes catalytic efficiency.
Why the Core of the Tools Acts as a Catalyst
All metals easily give up electrons in their outer atomic shells. For this reason metal is an excellent electrical conductor. Note: The higher the electro negativity, the more acquisitive the element (atom) is concerning electrons for the outer shell to satisfy its own valence.
The electro negativity of the core alloy is less than the overall electro negativity of the petroleum fluid solution. Therefore, the core losses (gives up) more electrons than it acquires to elements such as the hydrogen (H+) ion and radicals such as SO42- and CO32- (which have higher electro negatives than the core allow).
To recognize the process by which the CIS Tool System inhibits scale buildup and the way it breaks down and eliminates existing scale, it is necessary to understand the nature of scale and how it forms.
The two most common forms of scale deposits consist of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate MgCO3 (with binders). This deposit forms on oil well sucker rods and in tubing and surface equipment.
Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, (aka calcite) exists in nature as limestone and marble. Silica (SiO2), Alumna (Al2O3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are principal impurities in limestone and function as binders (cementing agents). Limestone layers were each formed over millions of years from remains of sea creatures that settled to the bottom of an ocean where the CaCO3 contained in these remains combined with silica (SiO2) alumna (Al2O3) and/or clay (SiO2 Al2O3 • 2H2O) which serve as binders. In addition, limestone usually includes some MgCO3.
CaCO3 is only slightly soluble in water, yet large amounts of calcium become dissolved in most water supplies by the action of rainwater on limestone. Rainwater is somewhat acidic because as it falls through the atmosphere, it encounters carbon dioxide (CO2) with which it reacts to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) as follows:
As rainwater contacts limestone on the earth, it is dissolves and goes into solution as calcium bicarbonate as follows:
The carbonic acid spontaneously ionizes to form a hydrogen ion, H+, and a bicarbonate ion, HCO3–, as follows:
The addition of hydrogen (H+) ions from the carbonic acid (H2CO3) reduces the concentration of carbonate (CO32-) ions that go into solution in water from the CaCO3 solid. This is because H+ ions and CO32- ions combine to form slightly ionized bicarbonate, HCO3–, ions in an attempt to saturate the solution and produce a product of the [Ca2+] x [CO32-] = Ksp = 2.8 x 10-9 at 25°C, solubility product constant or the equilibrium constant for a solid substance dissolving in an aqueous solution. Note: Ksp represents the level at which a solute dissolves in solution. The more soluble a substance is, the higher the Ksp value it has.
The amount of calcium ions, Ca2+, and bicarbonate, 2HCO3–, ions that remain in solution decreases with increases in temperature and precipitation as CaCO3 occurs as follows:
Ca2+ + 2HCO3– → CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
This is the basic reaction that forms the bulk of calcium carbonate scale and it also applies to magnesium and its bicarbonates and carbonates.
Furthermore, CaSO4 exists in ionized form when dissolved in water as the ions Ca2+ and SO42-. The solubility CaSO4 increases with temperature up to about 1,000°F, then decreases with further increasing temperature. SiO2 and Al2O3 are not ions but are relatively neutral colloidal residues that are slightly soluble in water. SiO2 is found in freshwater in a range of 1-100 mgl. At high concentrations, >50 mgl, chemical precipitation appears to occur. Hence precipitation of CaSO4 also occurs in water heaters and boilers.
Colloids, including SiO2, Al2O3 and clay (SiO2, Al2O3, 2H2O) when suspended in water usually carry a negative charge. If these negative charges (extra electrons) are neutralized (extra electron removed), then colloids COAGULATE, PRECIPITATE and COMBINE with (i.e. become absorbed by) CaCO3, MgCO3 and CaSO4 to form typical mostly carbonate scale. The density and hardness of this scale increases with increased concentration of SiO2, Al2O3, and/or CaSO4.
Electrons are drawn into petroleum fluid solutions because the solution contains ions that are more electronegative than the CIS Tool core. As the petroleum solution flows through the core, some of the electrons drawn into the solution inplace some already captured ions such as CO32-, HCO3– and SO42- during the turbulent orbiting of the various electrons.
This allows the “displaced” electrons to become “free electrons” in the solution. These “free electrons” can be captured by ions or colloids with lesser electro negativities such as Ca2+, SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. This in turn allows Ca2+ and Mg2+ to free themselves of CO32-, SO42- and HCO3–, and assume their atomic structures (Ca0 and Mg0) and break away from their ionic bonds while in solution or from lattice scale bonds in cases where they are in solid precipitated or scale form.
The increased electron count in the solution also inhibits the breakdown of the bicarbonate in into H+ and CO32-.
By acquiring or reacquiring a negative charge, colloidal substances such as silica, alumna and rust particles remain in suspension instead of becoming absorbed into calcium, magnesium and iron ions. The acquisition of the negative charge also causes these colloidal substances to be repelled from these ions in the flowing water or they were already onto them. This separation inhibits the hardness effects of these three ions.
The electron flow equations on scale formation are:
- Ca2+ + 2e– → Ca0
- Mg2+ + 2e– → Mg0
- xSiO2 + xe– → xSiO2(-)
- xAl2O3 + xe– → xAl2O3(-)
- xFe2O3 + xe– → xFe2O3(-)
- HCO3– + xe– HCO3– + xe– Inhibition of CO32-, H2O, CO32 reaction
Inhibiting effect of scale in equipment
- Ca0 + 2HCO3– → Ca0 + H2O + 2CO2
- 2CO32- → 2CO2 + O2 + 4e–
- 2HCO3– + xe– → 2HCO3– + xe– Inhibition of CO32- , H2O, CO2 reaction
Corrosion is inhibited if the iron is made more negative compared to its surroundings, forcing the anode areas to act as cathodes. This can be accomplished by attracting some of the polarized molecules (supplied by the CIS Tool) onto the anodic areas, thus preventing the ionization of Fe atoms. The additional polarized molecules also dissolve rust and other metal oxides by breaking them into fine colloidal particles.
Formation of Rust
- The loss of metal in an anodic area of a surface. In the case of Steel, Fe0 is lost to the water solution becoming oxidized to the Fe2+ ion.
- As a result of the formation of Fe2+, two electrons are released from the Fe atom and flow to a cathodic area.
- O2 in the water solution moves to the cathode and completes the electric circuit by using the two electrons moved to the cathode to form OH–
- Anodic reaction: Fe0 → Fe2+ + 2e–
- Cathodic reaction: ½O2 + H2O + 2e– → 2(OH–)
- Or e– + H+ → H0
Fe2+ and OH– will combine as follows:
- Fe2+ + 2OH– → Fe(OH)2
Rust is formed when Fe(OH)2 is oxidized:
- 2Fe(OH)2 + ½O2 → Fe2O3 + 2H2O
CORROSION AND SCALE SUMMARY
In accordance with the electro negativities of chemical elements and the oxidation potentials of the elements listed in the Electronegativity Scale and the Electromotive Series, respectively, the catalytic alloy conditioner provides electrons to the water solution in a catalytic manner to reduce electron deficiencies in the water.
This enables electrochemical changes to occur that (1) inhibit scale and corrosion formation, (2) dissolve existing scale and corrosion, (3) increase the wetness and cleaning power of water, (4) decrease the gaseous content of water, (5) break down and leach away excess salts from soil, and (6) inhibit algae fungus and mildew growth.
Because of the bipolar (cathodic and anodic) nature of all formed metals. The CIS Tool also removes electrons from some negative ions. However the conditioner provides for a significant net increase of electrons for the ions and colloids in the water solution, resulting in (1) inhibition of undesirable oxidation reaction (2) and increase of beneficial reduction reactions, and (3) keeping/putting of scale binding particles and rust/corrosion particles in colloidal suspension by providing them with negative charges.
Nature of Crude Oil
Petroleum crude oil consists of four factions, namely oil constituents, resin, asphaltene and preasphaltene (i.e. carbene and carboid). The chemical and physical properties of crude oils depend significantly on the relative amounts of each faction and their properties. The asphaltenes usually contain more condensed aromatic compounds than do the resin and oil factions. The resins contain aromatic or naphthenic hydrocarbons and components of oil factions may have napthenic or paraffin structures. Asphaltenes and preasphaltenes in their natural state exist in micelle form, peptized with resin molecules.
How Paraffin Builds
The center of this micelle can be metal, clay, or water. The essential feature is that the polar groups (such as S-“negative” and/or N-“negative” and/or O “negative” containing groups) are concentrated towards the center. This often is termed oil external-water internal or water-in-oil emulsion. When crude oils flow into a wellbore, its pressure and temperature decreases. Paraffin and water then would be released from the water-in-oil emulsion, with the paraffin solidifying at the reduced temperature condition.
How the CIS-CPR Systems Prevent Paraffin Buildup
As stated above, crude oils are made up of factions, which contain paraffin and water. When crude oil flows into a wellbore, pressure and temperature are reduced. As the oil/water solution cools, the paraffin changes to a solid form. The paraffin deposits obstruct the flow of crude oil. The CPRS provides an electrochemical change, which stabilizes the water-in-oil emulsion structure and prevents paraffin being released from the micelle structure and forming solid states. This allows the solution to move smoothly and cleanly through the pipe without causing deposit problems.